Citrulline is a non-essential, non-protein amino acid that forms during the urea cycle and forms ornithine when combined with carbon dioxide. Citrulline is also a critical source of endogenous (natural) arginine, as it is rapidly and efficiently converted to arginine in the vascular endothelium and other tissues

Citrulline’s benefits have been shown to be greater than its parent compound. While arginine undergoes direct hepatic (liver) metabolism through the enzyme arginase, citrulline bypasses hepatic metabolism entirely and it is delivered straight to the bloodstream. The result is that gut absorption and plasma (blood) bioavailability studies comparing citrulline and arginine have shown two things. First, that citrulline is less readily destroyed and has greater absorption than arginine. Second, that citrulline supplementation increases arginine levels more effectively than arginine supplementation itself.

This translates to promising results. For example, animal studies show a significant increase in anaerobic performance at a 250mg/kg/day serving of citrulline, while studies in humans implicate citrulline in both aerobic and anaerobic performance increases. As a critical part of the urea cycle, citrulline’s performance benefits are thought to be a result of its role in ammonia clearance. Citrulline is implicated in reducing the oxygen cost of muscle processes, along with increasing the rate of post-exercise ATP and phosphocreatine replenishment. As ATP and phosphocreatine are the body’s ‘exercise fuel,’ this may result in citrulline delaying time to exhaustion in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.


Beta Alanine

Beta Alanine is a non-esential amino acid. Unlike most amino acids, it is not used by your body to synthesize proteins. Instead, together with histidine, it produces carnosine. Carnosine is then stored in your skeletal muscles. Carnosine reduces lactic acid accumulation in your muscles during exercise, which leads to improved athletic performance.

Agmatine Sulfate

Agmatine is a naturally formed compound in the body that is a derivative of the Nitric Oxide (NO) producing amino acid Arginine. This ingredient is used as a tool to increase and regulate NO concentration in the blood stream to facilitate a good pump. Agmatine Sulfate is the powder form of Agmatine that is bonded with a sulfate ion for solubility purposes.


Glycerol is a fascinating and highly useful compound that has achieved a somewhat cult status in the fitness community – while both peer-reviewed research and anecdotal reports centered on the endurance functions of glycerol are plentiful, its bodybuilding applications are not as widely lauded. Those who do use glycerol, however, are persistent in their belief that it provides some of the most noticeable, and effective, engorging (“pump”) effects possible.

Glycerol has been well-established as a so-called, “hyperhydrating agent” because of its ability to potently and positively affect plasma (blood) osmolality. As an incredibly powerful osmotic agent, and when combined with large quantities of water, glycerol induces the intracellular retention of fluid (not the extracellular kind, you do not want) that would otherwise be renally excreted. Various research has shown that glycerol’s capacity to positively affect osmolality and expand fluid volume (an increase in total body water) has beneficial effects on performance and physiologic function.


​​​Alpha-GPC is a nootropic (improved brain functionality) used in pre-workout supplements, amino acid supplements and nootropic supplements due to its ability to improve brain functionality and increased athletic performance.

Alpha-GPC seems to increase a chemical in the brain called acetylcholine. This brain chemical is important for memory and learning functions.

Caffeine Anhydrous

Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed, and perhaps one of the most reviewed, psychoactive compounds. Its physiological effects in a range of areas have been well-documented, including exercise performance, information processing, alertness and mood enhancement, attention, and awareness, along with its anti-lipogenic and lipolytic abilities.


L-Norvaline is commonly found in pump products, as it may prevent Arginine from being broken down. It has been shown to be an Arginase inhibitor, and is very popular in pump products.

Now you may have heard some controversy regarding Norvaline as being bad for the brain. This stems from a study showing that Norvaline may cause brain damage. This has been making some noise amongst us supplement nerds. While the verdict is still out on Norvaline in terms of brain damage, there is actually a study showing that Norvaline can actually reverse cognitive decline. So before you go out a throw away your products containing Norvaline, just know that it’s potential impact on brain health is uncertain.​


Bacopa has been studied to be beneficial for working memory in people aged 18-60 with no signs of mental ailments. It has also been studied to be beneficial for cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression. What’s great about Bacopa is that the studies to back it have been done on humans.

One thing to note, Bacopa takes a while to kick in. You’ll typically have to wait around 1-2 months before the effects become noticeable. 


Gamma Butyrobetaine Ethyl Ester, commonly known as GBB, is one of the newer ingredients on the market, and it is almost exclusively found in fat burning products, although there may be benefits to taking it pre-workout. GBB is converted into Carnitine in the body.

While we highly suggest you go ahead and take a look at our page on Carnitine and the benefits of it, just know that Carnitine has been shown to be potentially beneficial for fat loss. Carnitine has also been studied to be good for brain function/focus. Of course, there are more.

Another interesting study has shown GBB to be a vasodilator, meaning it may aid in pumps. So you may find some companies utilizing this ingredient in pre-workouts and pump products in the future, although there are none that come to mind to promote it this way as of yet.


Isopropylnorsynephrine accomplishes what its cousin, synephrine, has always claimed to do, and that is increase lipolysis or fat loss. While synephrine is far more commonly seen and discussed, it has been shown to be only marginally effective at producing weight loss, while isoproylnorsynephrine was found to be “clearly lipolytic” in the aforementioned study.

Although no studies currently exist in regards to the stimulatory potential of this compound, anecdotal reports have shown it to be an extremely strong option for increasing energy in users.

Huperzine A

Huperzia serrata is a compound found in the plant families of Huperziaceae, Lycopodiaceae, and Selaginella.and is endemic to China. The Lycopodium alkaloid Huperizin-A, found in V1, was first isolated from a folk medicinal preparation in 1984.

Due to the potent anticholinesterase activities of Huperzine A, the compound was been evaluated in numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human trials. These data suggest that Huperzine’s Ache activities are most potent in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum (at least in rats) – key regions in the brain responsible for forming, coordinating, and recalling memory. These effects are assisted by Huperzine A’s high oral bioavailability. Studies using microdialysis technique in rats, for example, showed that the response to Huperzine A was dose-dependent and substantially lowered the level of ACh in cortex

Huperzine A has also shown promise in humans. In a study on memory and learning performance, 34 pairs of middle school students complaining of memory inadequacy were given a small dose of Huperzine A. The students were then match paired along a number of vectors and provided tests on working memory. The results of this study exhibited that HupA markedly improved the memory function of adolescent students